Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are highly interconnected networks of computer processors inspired by biological nervous systems. AI is rapidly advancing beyond text-based, image-based dental practice. Studies applying machine learning based on Artificial Neural Networks, to dental treatment through analysis of dental magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and cephalometric radiographs are actively underway. AI research aimed at mimicking humans’ complex and multi-faceted decision-making processes has contributed greatly to promoting the pioneering of new disciplines of cognitive science.